Instructional Systems Development Model
Figure 2-X: We are currently applying the ISD
Model to the IO IQT Course for AFIWC
In creating any training program, the first step is to understand why the course
is being developed, what are the skills and/or learning to be achieved, at what
level of depth, and so forth. Across all our training development efforts, the
first step in our process is to understand the client's need(s), the timeframes
they have to work within, and the level of understanding the students must have
Our work on the IWC IO Initial Qualification Training course began with exactly
those goals. First we interviewed the clients and IWC senior leaders to identify
their vision for the course and the results they desired. Then, we analyzed the
knowledge level if the student population and the current courses/courseware
available for IWC use. We assessed other operating procedures and models (such as
the AOC) that would require interaction with any newly developed courses and
determined what integration would be required with existing systems (PLATFORM,
etc.). Finally we identified the interactions required with the 39th IOS, and
other DOD relevant training courses to insure doctrinal compatibility
before we moved to course Design.
This phase takes a look at all aspects of an existing or emerging training
situation or program. The process is sized, as necessary, to match the scope
of the training under review, including cost estimates, milestones, and schedule.
If the recommended strategy includes a training system, then concept exploration
activities are initiated in order to define the desired training schema. During
these assessments, current and evolving instructional technologies can be surveyed
and their training capabilities and effectiveness are determined. A cost benefit
analysis across many dimensions can also be performed in order to identify Return
on Investment (ROI). Tradeoff areas may include
cost and other resource requirements; estimated training effectiveness; engineering risk;
schedule implications; resources and training requirements; reliability and maintainability,
and safety considerations.
We review all of information and provide a report which includes a complete description
of the alternatives and a recommended solution with supporting rationale. The report
is submitted to the client for review and selection of the alternative.
Course design begins with developing the overall objectives for the course and
descriptions of the various techniques, methods, and instructional styles to be
incorporated with the material. All initial course descriptions begin with achieving
an understanding of the environment for class interaction, material to be presented,
in what style(s), to what student audience(s), under what time constraints, and any
other constraints that may apply to the training system. Additionally, alternative
approaches to the design of the training are identified and evaluated, followed by
a recommendation on the best approach.
In some cases, computer-based training (CBT)
has been essential either for distributed training, or remote training opportunities or to
simply to add flexibility to student learning/objectives. Our work in developing
models and simulations for virtual environments has enhanced student understanding
through creating visualization opportunities and accelerated learning through multi
sensory learning techniques. However, more traditional lesson plan based training as well
as CBT and CD-ROM multi media training in
combination has proven particularly effective in our course designs.
Developing insightful courses with easy to use and descriptive supporting
courseware is both especially rewarding and integral to student performance.
In establishing the structure for courses and supporting elements, the selection
of course content, presentation methods and learning objectives drives the course
For our work with 1st IO Cmd (Land), development of comprehensive scenarios and
exercises were crucial to helping students achieve the application level of knowledge
whereas with the initial training at the IWC was focused more on the awareness level
with application reserved for advanced training courses.
Implementation of any course is based on the acceptance of the course by the
students, instructors, and the owners of the course. Sufficient flexibility for
adaptations and modifications to planned curriculums and course structures must be
incorporated into the course design and development to enable shifts in focus and
instructional perspective. As we have presented numerous IO and DOD systems courses
across the team, our course flexibility is based on substantial experience in rapidly
adapting courses to fit the level of knowledge that students and guest instructors
have brought to our courses. Instruction in Deception, OPSEC, and perception management
has been requested by and provided to various IO warriors as they have prepared for
deployments to differing crises and contingencies. The differences in roles and
responsibilities have often required the ability to shift course focus to match the
student population. Our flexible implementation approach and the open course architecture
design have enabled our responsiveness to all client requirements.
Since the process proceeds according to well specified and documented procedures, with
well defined products at each stage, it is necessary to evaluate the emerging training
product at each step, as depicted in Figure 2-X., detecting problems as they emerge, instead
of discovering them much later, in a training product which doesn't work. In order to assess
not only the student's absorption of the material, but the aptness of the course and courseware
to facilitate learning, evaluations are essential. The objective of any course is to convey
the desired material to the students. Courses and courseware should be, of themselves, transparent
in the learning process and facilitate vice intrude in the learning process. Consequently, our
approach to evaluation is to assess the substance learned by each student through pre and post
training exams and to assess the success or failure of different instructional methods and materials
based on the class make up and interaction as in place or distributed (or both) learning
environments were employed. Attempts are made to determine which learning techniques worked best
for which blocks of instruction and with what populations for course modification/adjustments.